Victoria & abdul: nữ hoàng & tri kỷ


Victoria was born at Kensington Palace, London, on 24 May 1819. She was the only daughter of Edward, Duke of Kent, fourth son of George III. Her father died shortly after her birth & she became heir lớn the throne because the three uncles who were ahead of her in the succession - George IV, Frederichồng Duke of York, và William IV - had no legitimate children who survived.

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Warmhearted và lively, Victoria had a gift for drawing và painting; educated by a governess at trang chủ, she was a natural diarist and kept a regular journal throughout her life. On William IV"s death in 1837, she became Queen at the age of 18.

Queen Victoria is associated with Britain"s great age of industrial expansion, economic progress và, especially, empire. At her death, it was said, Britain had a worldwide empire on which the sun never set.

In the early part of her reign, she was influenced by two men: her first Prime Minister, Lord Melbourne, & then her husb&, Prince Albert, whom she married in 1840. Both men taught her much about how to be a ruler in a "constitutional monarchy", in which the monarch had very few powers but could use much influence.

Albert took an active interest in the arts, science, trade và industry; the project for which he is best remembered was the Great Exhibition of 1851, the profits from which helped to lớn establish the South Kensington museums complex in London.

Read extracts from Victoria"s diaries

Her marriage lớn Prince Albert produced nine children between 1840 và 1857. Most of her children married into other families of Europe.

Edward VII (born 1841), married Alexandra, daughter of Christian IX of Denmark. Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh & of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (born 1844) married Marie of Russia. Arthur, Duke of Connaught (born 1850) married Louise Margaret of Prussia. Leopold, Duke of Albany (born 1853) married Helen of Waldeck-Pyrmont.

Victoria, Princess (born 1840) married Friedrich III, German Emperor. Alice (born 1843) married Ludwig IV, Gr& Duke of Hesse & by Rhine. Helena (born 1846) married Christian of Schleswig-Holstein. Louise (born 1848) married John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll. Beatrice (born 1857) married Henry of Battenberg.

Victoria bought Osborne House (later presented lớn the nation by Edward VII) on the Isle of Wight as a family trang chính in 1845, and Albert bought Balmoral in 1852.

Victoria was deeply attached to lớn her husband and she sank inkhổng lồ depression after he died, aged 42, in 1861. She had lost a devoted husbvà & her principal trusted adviser in affairs of state. For the rest of her reign she wore blachồng.

Until the late 1860s she rarely appeared in public; although she never neglected her official Correspondence, và continued khổng lồ give sầu audiences to lớn her ministers và official visitors, she was reluctant lớn resume a full public life.

She was persuaded lớn open Parliament in person in 1866 và 1867, but she was widely criticised for living in seclusion and quite a strong republican movement developed.

Seven attempts were made on Victoria"s life, between 1840 và 1882 - her courageous attitude towards these attacks greatly strengthened her popularity.

With time, the private urgings of her family and the flattering attention of Benjamin Disraeli, Prime Minister in 1868 và from 1874 to 1880, the Queen gradually resumed her public duties.

In foreign policy, the Queen"s influence during the middle years of her reign was generally used to tư vấn peace and reconciliation. In 1864, Victoria pressed her ministers not lớn intervene in the Prussia-Denmark war, & her letter to the German Emperor (whose son had married her daughter) in 1875 helped to avert a second Franco-German war.

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On the Eastern Question in the 1870s - the issue of Britain"s policy towards the declining Turkish Empire in Europe - Victoria (unlượt thích Gladstone) believed that Britain, while pressing for necessary reforms, ought to uphold Turkish hegemony as a bulwark of stability against Russia, & maintain bi-partisanship at a time when Britain could be involved in war.

Victoria"s popularity grew with the increasing imperial sentiment from the 1870s onwards. After the Indian Mutiny of 1857, the government of India was transferred from the East India Company khổng lồ the Crown, with the position of Governor General upgraded lớn Viceroy, and in 1877 Victoria became Empress of India under the Titles Act passed by Disraeli"s government.

During Victoria"s long reign, direct political power moved away from the sovereign. A series of Acts broadened the social and economic base of the electorate.

These acts included the Second Rekhung Act of 1867; the introduction of the secret ballot in 1872, which made it impossible lớn pressurise voters by bribery or intimidation; và the Representation of the Peoples Act of 1884 - all householders và lodgers in accommodation worth at least £10 a year, và occupiers of lvà worth £10 a year, were entitled lớn vote.

Despite this decline in the Sovereign"s power, Victoria showed that a monarch who had a high cấp độ of prestige and who was prepared to master the details of political life could exert an important influence.

This was demonstrated by her mediation between the Commons & the Lords, during the acrimonious passing of the Irish Church Disestablishment Act of 1869 và the 1884 Rekhung Act.

It was during Victoria"s reign that the modern idea of the constitutional monarch, whose role was to remain above political parties, began to lớn evolve sầu. But Victoria herself was not always non-partisan và she took the opportunity to lớn give her opinions, sometimes very forcefully, in private.

After the Second Resize Act of 1867, và the growth of the two-các buổi party (Liberal and Conservative) system, the Queen"s room for manoeuvre decreased. Her freedom khổng lồ choose which individual should occupy the premiership was increasingly restricted.

In 1880, she tried, unsuccessfully, to stop William Gladstone - whom she disliked as much as she admired Disraeli và whose policies she distrusted - from becoming Prime Minister. She much preferred the Marquess of Hartington, another statesman from the Liberal tiệc ngọt which had just won the general election. She did not get her way.

She was a very svào supporter of Empire, which brought her closer both to lớn Disraeli and to the Marquess of Salisbury, her last Prime Minister.

Although conservative sầu in some respects - lượt thích many at the time she opposed giving women the vote - on social issues, she tended khổng lồ favour measures to improve sầu the lot of the poor, such as the Commission on housing. She also supported many charities involved in education, hospitals and other areas.

Victoria & her family travelled & were seen on an unprecedented scale, thanks khổng lồ transport improvements and other technical changes such as the spread of web8_newspapers và the invention of photography. Victoria was the first reigning monarch to use trains - she made her first train journey in 1842.

In her later years, she became the symbol of the British Empire. Both the Golden (1887) & the Diamond (1897) Jubilees, held to celebrate the 50th and 60th anniversaries of the Queen"s accession, were marked with great displays and public ceremonies. On both occasions, Colonial Conferences attended by the Prime Ministers of the self-governing colonies were held.

Despite her advanced age, Victoria continued her duties to lớn the kết thúc - including an official visit lớn Dublin in 1900. The Boer War in South Africa overshadowed the end of her reign. As in the Crimean War nearly half a century earlier, Victoria reviewed her troops & visited hospitals; she remained undaunted by British reverses during the campaign: "We are not interested in the possibilities of defeat; they do not exist."

Victoria died at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight, on 22 January 1901 after a reign which lasted almost 64 years, then the longest in British history. Her son, Edward VII succeeded her.

She was buried at Windsor beside Prince Albert, in the Frogmore Mausoleum, which she had built for their final resting place. Above sầu the Mausoleum door are inscribed Victoria"s words:

Farewell best beloved, here at last I shall rest with thee, with thee in Christ I shall rise again